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Complete Table of Contents

Brief Table of Contents





Sixth Edition




Chapter 1.  Introduction to the Behavioral, Social, and Clinical Assessment of Children  1

Terminology  4

Goals of a Behavioral, Social, and Clinical Assessment  6

Guidelines for Conducting Assessments  6

Theoretical Perspectives for Behavioral, Social, and Clinical Assessments  8

Assessment Dimensions and Categories  12

Children with Special Needs  19

How Cognitive, Emotional, and Behavioral Difficulties Develop in Children  21

Risk and Protective Factors  25

Intervention and Prevention Guidelines  29

Ethical Considerations  33

Confidentiality of Assessment Findings and Records  33

Regulating the Profession  36

Educational Qualifications of Psychologists  38

Concluding Comments  38

Thinking Through the Issues  39

Summary  39

Key Terms, Concepts, and Names  44

Study Questions  45


Chapter 2.  A Primer on Statistics and Psychometrics  47

The Why of Psychological Measurement and Statistics  48

Scales of Measurement  48

Descriptive Statistics  50

Correlation  54

Regression  58

Norm‑Referenced Measurement  59

Derived Scores  60

Inferential Statistics  63

Reliability  64

Validity  69

Meta-Analysis  74

Concluding Comment  75

Thinking Through the Issues  75

Summary  75

Key Terms, Concepts, and Names  79

Study Questions  80


Chapter 3.  Conducting the Assessment  81 

Classification and Labeling  82

Variables to Consider in an Assessment  84

Observing Children  91

Accounting for Poor Test Performance  99

Steps in a Behavioral and Clinical Assessment  100

Computer-Based Administration, Scoring, and Report Writing  109

Examiner Stress 115

Strategies for Becoming an Effective Examiner  117

Concluding Comment on Challenges in Assessing Children  118

Thinking Through the Issues  119

Summary  120

Key Terms, Concepts, and Names  123

Study Questions  124


Chapter 4.  Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Children  125

Background Considerations  127

General Considerations in the Assessment of Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Groups 137

Dynamics of Cross-Ethnic and Cross-Cultural Assessment  141

Assessment of Bilingual Children  143

Evaluating Bias  145

Translations of Assessment Instruments  147

Interpreters  147

Recommendations  150

Thinking Through the Issues  153

Summary  154

Key Terms, Concepts, and Names  158

Study Questions  158




Chapter 5.  General Interviewing Techniques  161

Clinical Assessment Interviews versus Ordinary Conversations and Other Types of Interviews  162

Strengths and Weaknesses of the Clinical Assessment Interview  163

Purposes of Clinical Assessment Interviews  164

Degrees of Structure in Initial Clinical Assessment Interviews  165

Introduction to Interviewing Guidelines  168

External Factors and Atmosphere  170

Forming Impressions  170

Listening and Attending Skills  171

Analytical Listening  171

Establishing Rapport  173

Developmentally Sensitive Interviewing  175

Timing Questions Appropriately  177

Changing Topics  177

Formulating Appropriate Questions  177

Avoiding Certain Types of Questions  179

Probing Effectively  182

Using Structuring Statements  189

Dealing with Difficult Situations  190

Striving for Objectivity  197

Recording Information and Scheduling Appointments  197

Thinking Through the Issues  199

Summary  200

Key Terms, Concepts, and Names  203

Study Questions  204


Chapter 6.  Interviewing Children, Parents, Teachers, and Families  205

Interviewing Children  206

Interviewing Parents  215 

Interviewing Teachers  220 

Interviewing the Family  223 

Thinking Through the Issues  231 

Summary  231 

Key Terms, Concepts, and Names  233 

Study Questions  234 


Chapter 7.  Other Considerations Related to the Interview  235

Closing the Initial Interview  236

The Post-Assessment Interview  237

The Follow-Up Interview  245

Reliability and Validity of Interviews  246

Malingering  249

Evaluating Your Interview Techniques  251

Thinking Through the Issues  252

Summary  253

Key Terms, Concepts, and Names  255

Study Questions  255




Chapter 8.  Observational Methods, Part I  257

General Considerations When Conducting Observations  258

Narrative Recording   264

Interval Recording  273

Event Recording  278

Ratings Recording  284

Comment on Recording Methods  287

Thinking Through the Issues  289

Summary  289

Key Terms, Concepts, and Names  293

Study Questions  293


Chapter 9.  Observational Methods, Part II  295

Observational Coding Systems  296

Reliability of Observational Coding Systems  301

Validity of Observational Coding Systems  314

Procedures for Reducing Errors in Observations  316

Observation of Infants  318

Self-Monitoring Assessment  321

Reporting Behavioral Observations  326

Comment on the Observation of Behavior  328

Case Study  328

Thinking Through the Issues  328

Summary  328

Key Terms, Concepts, and Names  333

Study Questions  333




Chapter 10. Broad Measures of Behavioral, Social, and Emotional Functioning and of Parenting and Family Variables  335

Background Considerations for the Assessment of Behavior  336

Personality Tests  336

Adolescent Psychopathology Scale and Adolescent Psychopathology Scale-Short Form  337

Millon Adolescent Clinical Inventory  339

Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-Adolescent  340

Personality Inventory for Youth  341

Other Measures of Personality  342

Behavior Rating and Checklist Measures  343

Behavior Assessment System for Children, Second Edition  344

Behavior Dimensions Scale, Second Edition: School Version and Behavior Dimensions Scale, Second Edition: Home Version  347

Child Behavior Checklist for Ages 6-18, Teacher's Report Form, Youth Self-Report, Child Behavior Checklist for Ages 1˝-5, and Caregiver-Teacher Report Form  348

Conners 3rd Edition  351

Conners Comprehensive Behavior Rating Scales  352

Devereux Scales of Mental Disorders  353

Eyberg Child Behavior Inventory and Sutter-Eyberg Student Behavior Inventory-Revised  354

Jesness Inventory-Revised  355

Personality Inventory for Children, Second Edition  356

Revised Behavior Problem Checklist  358

Reynolds Adolescent Adjustment Screening Inventory  358

Social Skills Improvement System  359

Student Behavior Survey  360

Projective Techniques  361

Draw-A-Person Test  362

Children's Apperception Test  363

Roberts–2   363

Exner's Comprehensive System for the Rorschach Inkblot Test  365

Measures of Parenting and Family Variables  365

Parent-Child Relationship Inventory  366

Parenting Relationship Questionnaire  366

Parenting Satisfaction Scale  367

Parenting Stress Index, Fourth Edition and Parenting Stress Index,
Fourth Edition-Short Form  368

Stress Index for Parents of Adolescents  369

Thinking Through the Issues  369

Summary  369

Key Terms, Concepts, and Names  374

Study Questions  374


Chapter 11. Adaptive Behavior  375

Definition of Adaptive Behavior  376

Assessment Considerations  377

Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, Second Edition  378

AAMR Adaptive Behavior Scale-School, Second Edition  381

AAMR Adaptive Behavior Scale-Residential and Community, Second Edition  383

Scales of Independent Behavior-Revised  385

Adaptive Behavior Assessment System, Second Edition  387

Battelle Developmental Inventory, Second Edition  389

Adaptive Behavior Evaluation Scale, Revised Second Edition  391

Thinking Through the Issues  393

Summary  393

Key Terms, Concepts, and Names  394

Study Questions  394


Chapter 12. Visual-Motor Perception and Motor Proficiency  395

Guidelines for Administering and Interpreting Visual-Motor Tests  396

Bender Visual Motor Gestalt Test  399

Bender-Gestalt II  403

Koppitz Developmental Scoring System for the Bender Gestalt Test, Second Edition  406

Beery VMI  407

Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency, Second Edition  409

Thinking Through the Issues  410

Summary   411

Key Terms, Concepts, and Names  412

Study Questions  412


Chapter 13. Functional Behavioral Assessment  413

When Is a Functional Behavioral Assessment Needed?  414

Conditions Surrounding the Problem Behavior  415

Functions of Challenging Behavior  415

Guidelines for Conducting a Functional Behavioral Assessment  416

Assessing Behavior Through Observations  417

Assessing Behavior Through Interviews  417

Formulating Hypotheses to Account for the Problem Behavior  419

Behavioral Intervention Plans  420

Thinking Through the Issues  424

Summary  424

Key Terms, Concepts, and Names  427

Study Question  428




Chapter 14.  Disruptive Disorders, Anxiety and Mood Disorders, and Substance-Related Disorders  429

Oppositional Defiant Disorder  430

Conduct Disorder  430

Risk of School Violence  432

Aggression Questionnaire  435

Beck Disruptive Behavior Inventory for Youth and Beck Anger Inventory for Youth  435

Other Measures of Disruptive, Impulse-Control, and Conduct Disorders  436

Anxiety Disorders  436

Beck Anxiety Inventory for Youth  438

Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children, Second Edition  439

Revised Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale, Second Edition  439

Depressive Disorders  440

Beck Depression Inventory for Youth  442

Children's Depression Inventory, Second Edition  442

Reynolds Child Depression Scale, Second Edition and Reynolds Adolescent Depression Scale, Second Edition  443

Suicide Risk  444

Substance-Related Disorders  447

Thinking Through the Issues  449

Summary  450

Key Terms, Concepts, and Names  453

Study Questions  454


Chapter 15.  Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder  455

DSM-5 Diagnostic Criteria for ADHD  456

Disorders Comorbid with ADHD  457

Developmental Progression  457

Other Types of Deficits in ADHD  458

Parents of Children with ADHD  459

Etiology of ADHD  459

Assessment of ADHD  460

Interventions for ADHD 465

Thinking Through the Issues  468

Summary  468

Key Terms, Concepts, and Names  471

Study Questions  472


Chapter 16.  Specific Learning Disabilities: Background Considerations  473

Definitions of Specific Learning Disabilities  474

Etiology of Specific Learning Disabilities  478

Precursors of Specific Learning Disabilities Among Children of Preschool Age  479

Specific Learning Disabilities Among School-Age Children  480

Reading Disorder  483

Mathematics Disorder  485

Disorder of Written Expression  485

Communication Disorders  487

Nonverbal Learning Disability  488

Thinking Through the Issues   488

Summary  488

Key Terms, Concepts, and Names  491

Study Questions  492


Chapter 17.  Specific Learning Disabilities: Assessment and Intervention  493

IDEA 2004 and Specific Learning Disabilities  494

Response to Intervention  494

Discrepancy Model  496

Patterns of Strengths and Weaknesses Models  497

Comment on RTI, the Discrepancy Model, and PSW Models  498

Assessment of Specific Learning Disabilities  498

Interventions for Specific Learning Disabilities  507

Older Adolescents and Young Adults with Specific Learning Disabilities 512

Thinking Through the Issues  513

Summary  513

Key Terms, Concepts, and Names  515

Study Questions  515


Chapter 18.  Intellectual Disability  517

Defining and Understanding Intellectual Disability  518

Distribution of Intellectual Disability in the Population  521

Etiology of Intellectual Disability  522

Disorders Co-occurring with Intellectual Disability  528

Relationship Between Measured Intelligence and Adaptive Behavior  529

Assessment of Intellectual Disability  529

Interventions for Intellectual Disability  531

Concluding Comment on Intellectual Disability  533

Thinking Through the Issues  533

Summary  534

Key Terms, Concepts, and Names  536

Study Questions  537


Chapter 19.  Giftedness  539

Intellectual and Personality Characteristics of Children Who Are Gifted  540

Children Who Are Gifted and Female  541

Children Who Are Gifted and Underachieving  542

Children Who Are Twice Exceptional  543

Preschool Children Who Are Gifted  545

Long-Term Studies of Individuals Who Are Gifted  546

Promoting Psychosocial Adjustment in Children Who Are Gifted  546

Educating Children Who Are Gifted  547

Creativity  548

Suggestions for Maintaining and Enhancing Creativity in Children  549

Identifying and Assessing Giftedness and Creativity  550

Working with Parents of Children Who Are Gifted 552

Comment on Enhancing the Development of Children Who Are Gifted  553

Thinking Through the Issues  553

Summary  554

Key Terms, Concepts, and Names  556

Study Questions  556


Chapter 20.  Visual Impairments  557

Clues to Potential Visual Difficulties  558

Structure of the Eye  559

Disorders That Affect Vision  559

Clarity of Vision  560

Developmental Considerations  563

Assessment Considerations  564

Interventions  568

Thinking Through the Issues  572

Summary  572

Key Terms, Concepts, and Names  574

Study Question  575


Chapter 21.  Hearing Loss  577

Clues to Potential Hearing Difficulties  579

Structure of the Ear  580

A Profile of Children with Hearing Loss  580

Disorders That Affect Hearing  582

Acuity of Hearing  583

Assessment Considerations  584

Interventions  591

Thinking Through the Issues  593

Summary  594

Key Terms, Concepts, and Names  596

Study Question  597


Chapter 22.  Autism Spectrum Disorder   599

Etiology of Autism Spectrum Disorder  600

DSM-5 Classification of Autism Spectrum Disorder  602

Associated Features of Autism Spectrum Disorder  604

Disorders Comorbid with Autism Spectrum Disorder  604

Intellectual Functioning of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder  604

Assessment of Children for Autism Spectrum Disorder  605

Interventions for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder  609

Prognosis for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder  613

Comment on Autism Spectrum Disorder  613

Thinking Through the Issues  614

Summary  614

Key Terms, Concepts, and Names  616

Study Question  617


Chapter 23.  Brain Injuries: Theory and Rehabilitation  619

Overview of Brain Development and Brain Functions 620

Lateralization  623

Attention and Memory  626

Language and Symbolic Disorders  627

Traumatic Brain Injury  629

Sports-Related Concussions  634

Rehabilitation Programs  638

Protecting Children from Traumatic Brain Injuries  643

Thinking Through the Issues  644

Summary  644

Key Terms, Concepts, and Names  648

Study Questions  650


Chapter 24.  Brain Injuries: Assessment  651

Suggestions for Conducting an Evaluation  652

Symptoms and Behaviors of Children with Brain Injuries  654

Neurological Examination  656

Neuropsychological Examination  660

Halstead‑Reitan Neuropsychological Test Battery for Older Children and Reitan‑Indiana Neuropsychological Test Battery for Children  662


NIH Toolbox  669

Contributions to Neuropsychological Assessment Battery  669

Wechsler Tests as Part of a Neuropsychological Test Battery  669

Additional Procedures for the Assessment of Children with Brain Injuries  675

Evaluating the Assessment Findings  682

Thinking Through the Issues  689

Summary  689

Key Terms, Concepts, and Names  692

Study Questions  693



Chapter 25. Report Writing  695

Introduction to Psychological Report Writing  696

Sections of a Psychological Report   701

Principles of Report Writing  709

Concluding Comment on Report Writing  727

Thinking Through the Issues  727

Summary  731

Key Terms, Concepts, and Names  732

Study Questions  732


References  733

Name Index  781

Subject Index  795

Sixth Edition

Appendix A. Questionnaires

Table A-1. Background Questionnaire  1

Table A-2. Personal Data Questionnaire  11

Table A-3. School Referral Questionnaire  17


Appendix B.  Semistructured Interviews

Table B-1. Semistructured Interview Questions for a Child or Adolescent of School Age  20

Table B-2. Semistructured Interview Questions for an Older Child or Adolescent in a Mental Status Evaluation  25

Table B-3. Semistructured Interview Questions for an Older Child or Adolescent with Depression  26

Table B-4. Semistructured Interview Questions for an Older Child or Adolescent Who May Be Suicidal  28

Table B-5. Semistructured Interview Questions for an Adolescent or Older Child Being Screened for Alcohol Abuse or Dependence  30

Table B-6. Semistructured Interview Questions for an Adolescent or Older Child with a Drug Abuse Problem  32

Table B-7. Semistructured Interview Questions for a Child or Adolescent with a Learning Disability  35

Table B-8. Semistructured Interview Questions for an Older Child or Adolescent with Traumatic Brain Injury  38

Table B-9. Semistructured Interview Questions for a Parent of a Child Who May Have a Psychological or Educational Problem or Disorder  40

Table B-10. Semistructured Interview Questions to Obtain a Detailed Developmental History from a Mother Covering Her Child’s Early Years and to Evaluate Parenting Skills  44

Table B-11. Semistructured Interview Questions for a Parent Regarding a Brief Screening of Her or His Preschool-Age Child  56

Table B-12. Semistructured Interview Questions for a Parent Regarding How Her or His Preschool-Age or Elementary School-Age Child Spends a Typical Day  57

Table B-13. Semistructured Interview Questions for a Parent of a Child Who May Have an Autism Spectrum Disorder  60

Table B-14. Semistructured Interview Questions for a Family  66

Table B-15. Semistructured Interview Questions for a Teacher of a Child Referred for School Difficulties   67

Table B-16. Semistructured Interview Questions for a Student About Bullying at School  71

Table B-17. Semistructured Interview Questions for a Victim of Bullying  72

Table B-18. Semistructured Interview Questions for a Student Who Has Witnessed Bullying  73

Table B-19. Semistructured Interview Questions for a Student Who Has Bullied Another Student  74

Table B-20. Asking the Right Questions About a School’s Anti-Bullying Policies  75

Table B-21. Semistructured Interview Questions for a Student Who May Pose a Threat  76


Appendix C. Observation Forms

Table C-1. Classroom Observation Checklist  78

Table C-2. Observation Checklist for Rating a Child in a Classroom  80

Table C-3. Observation Protocol Combining Interval and Event Recording  82

Table C-4. Interval Recording Form  83

Table C-5. Classroom Observation Code: A Modification of the Stony Brook Code  84

Table C-6. Playground Observer Impression Form  91

Table C-7. Abbreviated Coding System for Observing Children's Play  92

Table C-8. Social Competence Observation Schedule  93

Table C-9. Preschool Children's Social, Behavioral, and Motor Competence Checklist  95


Appendix D. Self-Monitoring Forms

Table D-1. Self-Monitoring Form for Recording Stressful Situations  97

Table D-2. Self-Monitoring Form for Recording Daily Exercise  98

Table D-3. Self-Monitoring Form for Recording Attention  98

Table D-4. Student Diary Form for Describing a Target Behavior  99

Table D-5. Self-Monitoring Form for Recording Target Behavior  100

Table D-6. Self-Monitoring Form for Recording Intensity of Reaction  100

Table D-7. Self-Monitoring Form for Recording Homework Assignments  101

Table D-8. Self-Monitoring Form for Younger Children for Recording Behavior in Two Categories  102

Table D-9. Self-Monitoring Form for Younger Children for Recording Behavior in Five Categories  103


Appendix E. DSM-5 Disorders That May Be Evident in Childhood and Early Adulthood  104


Appendix F. Functional Behavioral Assessment

Table F-1. Functional Behavioral Assessment Recording Form  113

Table F-2. Functional Behavioral Assessment Brief Recording Form  116

Table F-3. Checklist of Possible Antecedent Events, Behaviors, and Consequent Events  117


Appendix G. Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

Table G-1. Structured Observation of Academic and Play Settings (SOAPS)  119

Table G-2. ADHD Questionnaire  124

Table G-3. DSM-5 Checklist for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder  125


Appendix H. Specific Learning Disabilities

Table H-1. Informal Tests of Word Prediction Abilities  127

Table H-2. Strip Initial Consonant Task  130

Table H-3. Phonological Memory Test  131

Table H-4. Phonological Oddity Task  132

Table H-5. List of Regular Words, Irregular Words, and Nonsense Words  134

Table H-6. Auditory Analysis Test  135

Table H-7. Yopp-Singer Test of Phoneme Segmentation  136

Table H-8. Informal Writing Inventory  137

Table H-9. Diagnostic Spelling Test   139

Table H-10. Elements Tested in the Diagnostic Spelling Test  140

Table H-11. Informal Assessment of Arithmetic   141

Table H-12. Stories for Meaningful Memory Recall  142

Table H-13. Questions to Help You Learn About a Child's Attitude Toward Reading and Writing  143

Table H-14. Sentence Completion Technique for Children Who May Have Learning Problems  145

Table H-15. Reading Study Skills Questionnaire  147

Table H-16. Self-Evaluation of Note-Taking Ability  148

Table H-17. Self-Monitoring Procedure to Improve Reading Comprehension  149

Table H-18. Checklist of Problems Associated with Learning Disabilities  151


Appendix I. Giftedness

Table I-1. Teacher and Parent Recommendation Form for Children Who Are Gifted and Talented  152

Table I-2. Parent and Teacher Recommendation Form for Preschool Children Who Are Gifted and Talented  153

Table I-3. Checklist for Identifying Children Who Are Creative  154


Appendix J. Autism Spectrum Disorder

Table J-1. Observation Form for Recording Behaviors That May Reflect Autism Spectrum Disorder and Positive Behaviors  155

Table J-2. Modified Checklist for Autism Disorder in Toddlers (M-CHAT)  157

Table J-3. Autism Spectrum Disorder Questionnaire for Parents  158

Table J-4. Checklist of Possible Signs of an Autism Spectrum Disorder   160

Table J-5. DSM-5 Checklist for Autism Spectrum Disorder  161


Appendix K. Instructional and Behavioral Support Strategies for Parents and Teachers

Handout K-1. Handout for Parents: Guidelines for Working with Children with Special Needs  162

Handout K-2. Handout for Parents: Strategies for Preventing and Dealing with Bullying, Cyberbullying, and Other Internet Issues  177

Handout K-3. Handout for Teachers: Instructional and Behavioral Support Strategies for Students with Special Needs  185

Handout K-4. Handout for Teachers: Strategies for Preventing and Dealing with Bullying, Cyberbullying, and Other Internet Issues  210


Appendix L. Miscellaneous Tables

Table L-1. Interview Techniques Checklist  218

Table L-2. Checklist for an Interviewee's Evaluation of an Interviewer   220

Table L-3. Checklist of Risk Factors for Child Maltreatment  221

Table L-4. Child Risk Factors Checklist  223

Table L-5. Child Protective Factors Checklist  224

Table L-6. Checklist of Risk Factors for Child or Adolescent Suicide  225

Table L-7. Indicators of Psychological or Physical Difficulties  226

Table L-8. Explanation of Indicators of Psychological or Physical Difficulties from Table L-7  228

Table L-9. Acculturative Stress Inventory for Children  232

Table L-10. Student Oral Language Observation Matrix (SOLOM)  233

Table L-11. Sentence-Completion Technique  234

Table L-12. Positive Reinforcement Sentence Completion   235

Table L-13. Informal Checklist of Adaptive Behavior   236

Table L-14. Checklist of Symptoms Associated with Brain Injury  237

Table L-15. Adolescent Brain Injury Symptom Checklist  238

Table L-16. Worksheet for Writing a Neuropsychological Report for a Child of School Age  239

Table L-17. Checklist for Accuracy and Completeness of an Assessment Report  241

Table L-18. Executive Functions Checklist  242

Table L-19. Checklist of Risk Factors for Potential Violence  243

Table L-20. Ten-Item Personality Inventory (TIPI)  245


Appendix M. Executive Functions

Primary Executive Functions  247

Three Models of Executive Functions  247

Developmental Aspects of Executive Functions  249

Intelligence, Achievement, and Executive Functions  250

How Executive Functions Are Compromised  250

Assessment of Executive Functions  251

Improving Deficits in Executive Functions  259

Thinking Through the Issues  260

Summary  260

Key Terms, Concepts, and Names  261

Study Questions  262


Appendix N. Bullying and Cyberbullying

Characteristics of Bullying  265

Characteristics of Cyberbullying  266

Characteristics of Bullies  267

Characteristics of Victims  268

Dimensions of Bullying  270

Incidence of Bullying  270
Bystander Reluctance to Report Bullying  271
Correlates of Bullying  271

Consultation  272

Laws to Prevent Bullying  277

The Role of the Court in Cases Involving Bullying and Cyberbullying  277

Concluding Comment  278

Thinking Through The Issues  278

Summary  278

Key Terms, Concepts, and Names  282

Study Questions  282


Appendix O. Challenges of Being an Expert Witness

Frye Standard and Daubert Standard  284

Standards of Proof  285

Reasonable Certainty of Opinion  285

Testifying as an Expert Witness  285

Effectiveness as an Expert Witness  298

Concluding Comment  298

Thinking Through the Issues  298

Summary  298

Key Terms, Concepts, and Names  300

Study Questions  300



Glossary of Abbreviations and Acronyms  301

Glossary of Legal Terms and Concepts  304

Glossary of Measurement Terms  313


References  319

Name Index  329

Subject Index  333

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